What are the issues?

In particular, pre-1970 liquid and gas pipelines present a mix of potential problems such as coating deterioration, external/internal corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, random mechanical damage (dents and gouges), fatigue loading (liquid pipelines), pipe weld quality and, although rare, axial overloading (ground movements). Despite the industry’s good safety record, it should be emphasised that ‘ageing’ or ‘vintage’ pipelines were constructed using simple consensus design codes.

The changing legislative requirements, the change in population density near the pipeline,...